history of tobacco in china

history of tobacco in china

As the author notes, “ the history of the cigarette in China was simply an amplification of earlier patterns of tobacco production, marketing, and consumption” (p. 131). 1769 New Zealand Captain James Cook arrived smoking a pipe, and … As in other contexts, tobacco became indigenized in China in culturally specific ways even as it became a globalized phenomenon. Carol Benedict. ©2000-2020 ITHAKA. As detailed in chapter 3, historical and literary representations of Qing-era women consuming tobacco— be it the peasant woman with her rough-hewn pipe or the upperclass matron with her more elegant and refined water pipe— are too common to allow for any other interpretation. Tobacco has been pervasive in China almost since its introduction from the Americas in the mid-sixteenth century. More than half of all adult men in China are regular smokers. With the arrival of the Europeans in the 16th century, the consumption, cultivation, and trading of tobacco quickly spread. One of the first mass-marketed products in China, cigarettes were introduced from abroad by the British- American Tobacco Co. (BAT), beginning in the coastal cities. In 1839, the Daoguang Emperor appointed Lin Zexu Governor of Guangdong province to reduce and eliminate the opium trade. China includes approximately one‐fifth of the world's population, and has the world's second largest economy. 1950s ChinaState monopoly takes control of the tobacco business and foreign companies had to leave 1900China almost entirely penetrated by foreign tobacco companies 1858 ChinaTreaty of Tianjin allows cigarettes to be imported into China duty-free 1603 JapanUse of tobacco well- established 1600 IndiaTobacco introduced 1530–China [Photo/bwg.police.sh.cn]. Along the way, she analyzes the factors that have shaped China's highly gendered tobacco cultures, and shows how they have evolved within a broad, comparative world-historical framework. [Photo/icpress.cn]. From the long-stemmed pipe to snuff, the water pipe, hand-rolled cigarettes, and finally, manufactured cigarettes, the history of tobacco in China is the fascinating story of a commodity that became a hallmark of modern mass consumerism. Mao Zedong was often pictured with a cigarette in his hand, as in this 1957 shot of him meeting deputies from the Third National Congress of Chinese Communist Youth League. In 1638 around 3,000,000 pounds of Virginian tobacco was sent to England for sale and by the 1680’s Jamestown was producing over 25,000,000 pounds of tobacco per year for export to Europe. 4 Nevertheless, China is classified as a “developing” country, and as such has not experienced the decline in tobacco‐related diseases that developed countries have observed since the 1980s. Drawing from a wealth of historical sources-gazetteers, literati jottings (biji), Chinesemateria medica,Qing poetry, modern short stories, late Qing and early Republican newspapers, travel memoirs, social surveys, advertisements, and more-Golden-Silk Smokenot only uncovers the long and dynamic history of tobacco in China but also sheds new light on global histories of fashion and consumption. The tobacco plant was first brought to China in the 1570s, from the island of Luzon, in what is today the Philippines, by Chen Zhenlong, a merchant from Fujian. In the year just before he died, however, Li Ê sadly noted that although his desire for tobacco was still great, he could no longer smoke because his lungswere diseased (fei ji).¹ Physicians in attendance at the time of Li’s passing would not have explained his affliction in terms of cancer, emphysema, or any other smoking-related illness now associated with tobacco. document.write(oTime.getFullYear()); Without written authorization from CDIC, such content shall not be republished or used in any form. And a family suspects a man who drowned in a fishing pond after police released him was tortured. The exact cause of death is uncertain. [Photo/xinhuanet.com.cn]. This book gives a detailed early history as well as a well-referenced account of the spread Use features like bookmarks, note taking and 2011. China has up to now been left behind much of the rest of Asia in tackling the tobacco epidemic. In 1817, the British began to sell a narcotic drug, Indian opium, to China as a way to reduce the trade deficit and to make the Indian colony profitable. HISTORY OF TOBACCO 6000 BCE - 2009 CE users were warned they risked nasal cancers. Despite its common origins in the Americas, NewWorld tobacco followed a somewhat different historical trajectory in China than it did in Europe. Chiang Kai-shek, the party head, reformed the anti-drug commission under military departments to an independent section in charge of smoking elimination in the nation, and personnally took command. The socially and spatially differentiated smoking habits outlined in the preceding chapter were part of a growing urban-rural divide in China that by the 1930s “was palpable and real.”¹ In the early twentieth century, industrialization in the treaty ports brought about intensified urbanization along the coast.² As urban standards of living improved relative to those in the countryside, the notion that it was better to live in a city than in a small town, already percolating in the late Qing period, emerged full-blown. The gradual geographical diffusion of commercial tobacco cultivation that occurred between 1600 and 1750 as outlined in chapter 2 resulted not only in a profusion of inexpensive local tobaccos but also in a... Tobacco usewas already pervasive throughout Chinawhen the machine-rolled cigarette first began to take hold in Chinese treaty ports toward the end of the nineteenth century. Objective To document tobacco advertising practices of a popular, high-grade, domestic cigarette in China across a broad spectrum of channels. The history of smoking dates back to as early as 5000 BC in the Americas in shamanistic rituals. Asia has shown that tobacco control is not the prerogative of western countries. Photograph of two opium eaters in Qing Dynasty (AD 1644–1911). By the year 1948, the cultivation area of flue-cured tobacco in China had reached 0.16 million ha and this number further increased to about 0.41 million by the year 1967. China, India, and Brazil are the leading producers of this plant in the world. In contrast to early modern Europeans, who eventually consumed imported tobacco grown by enslaved laborers on colonial plantations and distributed by royal monopolies or government-chartered joint-stock companies, Chinese consumers for the most part smoked tobacco grown in China on countless small family farms spread across the empire. Production of tobacco in China increased during the past three decades. Granted, therewere gendered differences in the location of consumption: Chinese men could smoke in public, but well-mannered women smoked privately out of view. Smoke Free Places Smoking is completely prohibited in at least 28 indoor public places, including medical facilities, restaurants, bars, and most public transportation. Qing Dynasty (AD 1644–1911) Emperor Kang Xi. "From the long-stemmed pipe to snuff, the water pipe, hand-rolled cigarettes, and finally, manufactured cigarettes, the history of tobacco in China is the fascinating story of a commodity that became a hallmark of modern mass consumerism. Its factory in the Pudong district of Shanghai by 1919 was producing more than 243 million cigarettes per week.[Photo/tobaccochina.com]. Carol Benedict follows the spread of Chinese tobacco use from the sixteenth century, when it was introduced to China from the New World, through the development of commercialized tobacco cultivation, and to the present day [ citation needed ] China tobacco also markets premium brands, notably Chunghwa . Golden-Silk Smoke: A History of Tobacco in China, 1550-2010. From about the year 1914, flue-cured tobacco became widely cultivated in China. Advertisements featuring fashionable courtesans, or sing-song girls of Shanghai around the 1920s testified that the imported habit was trendy in what was then one of Asia's biggest cities. Carol Benedict follows the spread of Chinese tobacco use from the sixteenth century, when it was introduced to China from the New World, through the development of commercialized tobacco cultivation, and to the present day. Much earlier in European history, well before snuff got a foothold in China, Catherine de’ Medici, the queen of France and wife of Henry II, had been a snuff convert. Golden-Silk Smoke: A History of Tobacco in China, 1550–2010 - Kindle edition by Benedict, Carol. You do not have access to this The earliest tobacco control legislation in the world was in Asia (Singapore, 1970) and bans on duty-free cigarettes (Singapore) and on smokeless tobacco (Hong Kong, 1987), as well as the use of tobacco tax to fund health promotion (Thailand) have … Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011. Is is not easy to find a comprehensive history of tobacco use in China, most English language sources concentrate on the modern period. China, with its then-430,000,000 potential customers, he told company executives, “is where we are going to sell cigarettes.”¹ When informed that the Chinese did not yet smoke cigarettes, Duke said he supposed they could learn. xiii + 334. Tobacco, a New World crop, became globally enjoyed beginning in the sixteenth century, and Benedict shows us how fully the Chinese have participated in its … Millions of rural immigrants moved to the city, drawn by factory jobs and the expectation of a... From the seventeenth until at least the late nineteenth century, many Chinese women of all social ranks consumed tobacco just as their menfolk did. Log in to your personal account or through your institution. The Chinese cigarette market, whether supplied by transnational tobacco companies, Chinese-owned mechanized firms, or localized hand-rolling workshops, expanded spectacularly between 1900 and 1937. Carol Benedict Golden‐Silk Smoke: A History of Tobacco in China, 1550–2010.Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. China’s anti-smoking movement was first recorded in 1639, when Ming Dynasty (AD 1368-1644) Emperor Chongzhen issued a national ban on tobacco and stipulated that tobacco addicts be executed. Wax statues of Lin Zexu (right) and Qing Dynasty (AD 1644–1911) Emperor Daoguang in Fuzhou city of Fujian province on May 23, 2013. One-third of the world's smokers--over 350 million--now live in China, and they account for 25 percent of worldwide smoking-related deaths. Overall 20,000 chests (each holding about 55 kilograms) were handed over and destroyed in a 23-day campaign beginning June 3, 1839. Carol Benedict follows the spread of Chinese tobacco use from the sixteenth century, when it was introduced to China from the New World, through the development of commercialized tobacco cultivation, and to the present day Earlier chapters describe China’s dynamic culture... JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. With the Restoration of Charles II in 1660 came a new way of using tobacco from Paris where the king had been living in exile. Instead, Li’s doctors would have... Chinese tobacco, from the seventeenth through the nineteenth century and beyond, formed part of a dynamic domain of consumption that changed over time. Although civilians were banned from the puff of pleasure, China's top leaders in the older generation took up the practice with gusto. In 1637, Qing Dynasty (AD 1644–1911) Emperor Kangxi expanded the death penalty to those who possess tobacco. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. The plant depletes the soil of nitrogen Tobacco was introduced to China in the 16th and 17th centuries (Benedict, 2011). In 1752, Li Ê, the Han River Poetry Society lyricist who had so passionately promoted tobacco during his lifetime, passed away in his beloved city of Hangzhou. Coming to the figure 430,000,000, he exclaimed, "That is where we are going to sell cigarettes." Shigehisa Kuriyama, Harvard University It … From the long-stemmed pipe to snuff, the water pipe, hand-rolled cigarettes, and finally, manufactured cigarettes, the history of tobacco in China is the story of a commodity that became a hallmark of modern mass consumerism. WHO age-standardized prevalence for daily adult smoking in China was estimated to be 22% in 2012. The country was China, and in 1890 the Dukes exported the first cigarettes to the populous Asian nation. Catherine was so impressed with snuff’s palliative effect on her $49.95. China's anti-smoking movement was first recorded in 1639, when Ming Dynasty (AD 1368-1644) Emperor Chongzhen issued a national ban on tobacco and stipulated that tobacco addicts be executed. In April 1935, the Kuomintang Party that then governed China issued a decree that aimed to eliminate drugs in two years and cigarettes in six years. Special: College candidates face ultimate test. Tobacco leaves are sun-dried to reduce the toxicity. [Photo/tobaccochina.com]. Although tobacco was consumed in China as early as the 1500s, cigarettes didn't arrive until the late 1800s, according to the archives at the US's Duke University, immediately after the invention of the cigarette machine in 1881, James B. Duke (1865—1925) is reported to have leafed through a world atlas to survey the population of foreign countries. All Rights Reserved. These cities, like other parts of the world where cigarettes began to displace traditional forms of tobacco in the 1880s and 1890s, were directly linked to the globalizing industrial economy. The content (including but not limited to text, photo, multimedia information, etc) published in this site belongs to China Daily Information Co (CDIC). In 1637, Qing Dynasty (AD 1644–1911) Emperor Kangxi expanded the death penalty to those who possess tobacco. Since the founding of People's Republic of China in 1949, the new Chinese government launched a vigorous crackdown on drugs and tobacco. From the long-stemmed pipe to snuff, the water pipe, hand-rolled cigarettes, and finally, manufactured cigarettes, the history of tobacco in China is the fascinating story of a commodity that became a hallmark of modern mass consumerism. China Tobacco, like many other tobacco companies, produces a plethora of brands – over 900, the largest of which, Hongtashan (Red Pagoda Hill), accounts for only 4% of total sales. Buy Golden-Silk Smoke: A History of Tobacco in China, 1550-2010 by Carol Benedict (ISBN: 9780520262775) from Amazon's Book Store. Average annual outputs were 0.965, 2.106 and 2.921 million tonnes for the periods 1970-1978, 1979-1992 and 1993-1999, respectively. Here he speaks with former US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, while preparing to light up: US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger in conversation with Deng Xiaoping. 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