origin of greek tragedy

origin of greek tragedy

He writes: "Tragedy is, therefore, an imitation (mimēsis) of a noble and complete action [...] which through compassion and fear produces purification of the passions. Vol. The emphasis in Euripides’ Orestes on political factions, for example, is directly relevant to the Athens of 408 BCE.[30]. Greek tragedies have played an important role in the structuring of modern plays, and have had a large impact on modern literature. Winnington-Ingram points out that we can easily trace various influences from other genres. [36], The role of the audience in a Greek Tragedy is to become part of that theatrical illusion, to partake in the act as if they were part of it. Learn more about the history and characteristics of tragedy … Greek tragedy was not itself intended as an immediate contribution to political debate, though in its exploration of issues, sometimes by means of rapid question-and-answer dialogue, its debt to rhetoric is obvious (this is particularly true of some plays by Euripides, such as the Phoenician Women or the Suppliants, but also of some by Sophocles, such as Oedipus the King and Philoctetes). In the case of Aeschylus' tragedy The Persians, it was performed in 472 BC in Athens, eight years after the battle of Salamis, when the war with Persia was still in progress. Comedy plays were derived from imitation; there are no traces of its origin. [38] With regard to gender distinctions, the author finds that despite the fact that females choruses existed within Greek plays in general, they, like other enslaved and foreign individuals lacked the same kind of status as male Greeks. (Public domain) Dionysus = god of wine, fertility, ritual madness, ecstasy, and theatre 2. It tells the story of the Persian fleet's defeat at Salamis and how the ghost of former Persian King Darius accuses his son Xerxes of hubris against the Greeks for waging war on them. At the end of the last play, a satyr play was staged to revive the spirits of the public after they had witnessed the heavy events of the tragedy that had preceded it. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The person who received the highest number of votes won. He elaborates on the musical, often sing-song nature of the plays, and looks at oral tradition as the backdrop to the construction of these plays (e.g., oral tradition may play a role in the processes that lead to the creation of Greek Tragedy). parodoi, which are used not only by the spectators for entering and The presence of attacks on Zeus casts doubt onto the authorship of Aeschylus's Prometheus Bound. These unities were considered key elements of the theatre until a few centuries ago, although they were not always observed (such as by authors like Shakespeare, Calderón de la Barca and Moliere). Katharsis, on this reading, will denote the overall ethical benefit that accrues from such an intense yet fulfillingly integrated experience. Friedrich Nietzsche at the end of the 19th century highlighted the contrast between the two main elements of tragedy: firstly, the Dionysian (the passion that overwhelms the character) and the Apollonian (the purely pictorial imagery of the theatrical spectacle).[25]. For a detailed study of the metric, see: Brunet (1997) 140–146. In the centre of the orchestra stands an The Origin of Greek Tragedy People who aided the creation of plays Euripides Euripides was an ancient greek writer of tragedy and is certainly the most revolutionary Greek tragedian known in modern times. Comedy was also an important part of ancient Greek theatre. [38] For example, if the chorus were composed of boys from Argive, then one would refer to them as "Argive boys" (p. "[22] Whereas mimēsis implies an imitation of human affairs, catharsis means a certain emotional cleansing of the spectator. (eds.) [38] "The Demos in Greek Tragedy", frequently addresses the works of Euripides. Thousands of Greek citizens – Greek men, that is, for no women were allowed – would gather in the vast amphitheatre to watch a trilogy of tragic plays, such as Aeschylus’ Oresteia. … σις, "imitation"), and catharsis or katharsis (κάθαρσις, "cleansing") to explain the function of tragedy. For the character of Euripidean Tragedy, see: Easterling (1989) 64-86. Such ideas as these Directly beyond the circular orchestra lies the skene or scene building. "[30], Other tragedies avoid references or allusions to 5th century BC events, but "also draw the mythological past into the present. above the level of the orchestra. Brown. Some have linked the rise of the genre to an earlier art form, the lyrical performance of epic poetry. In this category [can be placed] Aeschylus’ Persians and Oresteia."[29]. Some scholars equate the two sources, assuming an error of Aristophanes, of 17 instead of 7. Greek Tragedy The origin of Greek Drama tragedy was the start of lyrical poems and great epics. [40] This is a technique in which an action is halted by the appearance of an unforeseen character or through the intervention of a god, that essentially brings about a conclusion to a play. The word tragedy comes from the greek work "tragoidia" which literally means "goat song." Greek tragedy was a form of theater popular in Greece around the 5th century BC. The most acclaimed Greek tragedians are Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides. The Dionysia was also called Great Dionysia, to distinguish them from rural areas, plays a minor that took place in winter in countries around Athens. [40] In this way, such a technique is essential to the mechanisms of Greek Tragedy and the capabilities of the tragedian in conveying their play as more than just a story or detailed event. The stories that tragedy deals with stem from epic and lyric poetry, its meter — the iambic trimeter — owed much to the political rhetoric of Solon, and the choral songs' dialect, meter and vocabulary see… A spectator of a Greek dramatic performance in the latter half of the fifth century B.C. This was called the proskenion or logeion where much of the dramatic action of the plays takes place. promotes as "the most sophisticated view of katharsis", the idea that it "provides an education for the emotions." The most complete version of the Greek creation myths that survives is a poem called the Theogony (“Birth of the Gods”) by a poet named Hesiod, who lived in the late eighth or early seventh century B.C. Greek tragedy was not itself intended as an immediate contribution to political debate, though in its exploration of issues, sometimes by means of rapid question-and-answer dialogue, its debt to rhetoric is obvious (this is particularly true of some plays by Euripides, such as the. Drama tragedy began approximately 532 B.C.E in Athens, where this art form was performed not only for personal pleasure, it was also to worship and honor Dionysos, the Greek god of wine and theater. [38] The author gives an example of how a female chorus in Aeschylus' Seven against Thebes, is criticized for being bad for citizen morale. During the Dionysia a contest took place between three plays, chosen by the archon eponymous. Greek tragedy is a form of theatre from Ancient Greece and Anatolia. late 14c., "play or other serious literary work with an unhappy ending," from Old French tragedie (14c. Origins of Greek Tragedy Scholars have been unable to agree upon the exact year and method of emergence of tragedy. (in ancient Greek theatre) a play in which the protagonist, usually a person of importance and outstanding personal qualities, falls to disaster through the combination of a personal failing and circumstances with which he or she cannot deal (1992) 'Katharsis' in: A.O. [39] Approaching antiquity from a contemporary outlook, especially with regard to the construction and form of the plays, hinders any understanding of classical Greek society. The Origin Of Tragedy With Special Reference To The Greek Tragedians The Origin Of Tragedy by William Ridgeway, The Origin Of Tragedy With Special Reference To The Greek Tragedians Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. altar. This week on Crash Course Theater, Mike is acting like theater started in Greece. The Origin of Greek TragedyAccording to Aristotle, Greek tragedy developed out of the improvised speeches of the dithyramb with the satyric drama as an intermediate stage. The word tragedy literally means “goat song,” probably referring to the practice of giving a goat as a sacrifice or a prize at the religious festivals in honor of the god Dionysos. Some have linked the rise of the genre, which began in Athens, to the earlier art form, the lyrical performance of epic poetry. By extension the term may be applied to other literary works, such as the novel. [38] The article notes how often the audience is incorporated as being representative of the expected demos, usually by having silent actors, or individuals who are part of the Tragedy, be seated with the audience, to ensure that the actor is engaging with the audience. It is widely believed that theatre masks have originally been attributed to Dionysus, the Greek God of wine, grape harvest, fertility, and theatre, and were used in ancient Greek theatre as a homage to him. This view has been widely accepted but challenged by some authorities as difficult to reconcile with the evidence of the facts. For Sophoclean theatrical inventions, see: Easterling (1989) 43-63; Sinisi & Innamorati (2003) 3. Aristotle, it is said, may have been theorizing from what… [note 3] It was organized by the State and the eponymous archon, who picked three of the richest citizens to pay for the drama's expenses. (that is, the low-numbered 700s or high-numbered 600s BC). Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. [27], The theatre voiced ideas and problems from the democratic, political and cultural life of Athens. they present their odes. ", "Both drives, so different from each other, go side by side, mostly in open discord and opposition, always provoking each other to new, stronger births, in order to perpetuate in themselves the struggle of opposites which is only apparently bridged over by the common word 'art'; until, finally, by a wonderful act of Hellenic 'will,' they seem to pair up and in this pairing, at last, produce Attic Tragedy, which is as much a Dionysian as an Apollonian artwork."[26]. Tragedy begins in ancient Greece, of course, and the first great tragedies were staged as part of a huge festival known as the City Dionysia. The city-state of Athens, which became a significant cultural, political, and military power during this period, was its centre, where the theatre was institutionalised as part of a festival called the Dionysia, which honoured the god Dionysus. "The possibility that a reflection of Athens is to be seen in Aeschylus’ Persian mirror could explain why the poet asks his audience to look at Salamis through Persian eyes and elicits great sympathy for the Persians, including Xerxes. Ruth Scodel notes that, due to lack of evidence and doubtful reliability of sources, we know nearly nothing about tragedy's origin. Contrasted with that is nemesis, the divine punishment that determines the fall or death of the character. [38] The citizen chorus was not only distinguished by status but was also seen as a subset of the demos. would find himself seated in the theatron, or koilon,a semi-circular, curved bank of seats, resembling in some respects the closed end of a horseshoe stadium. [42] Through this the author notes how Aeschylus' play relates to this notion of character identification, as it depicts a being who is not necessarily acting out of selfish intention but in many ways was willing to be punished for the betterment of Humanity. Ley, G. (2015) 'Acting Greek Tragedy' (Exeter: University of Exeter Press). [39] Therefore, the author concludes that this not only demonstrates the performative nature of Greek tragedy but also brings forth the possibility that dialogic based strategies may have been employed. But Ridgeway's own theory of tragedy is hardly discussed. [42], Apollonian and Dionysian: the analysis of Nietzsche, Demos: An Exploration of People and Democracy in Greek Tragedy, Deus Ex Machina: An Intervention Technique, Aeschylus: Human Identification through Character Representation. In ancient Greek culture, says Nietzsche, "there is a conflict between the plastic arts, namely the Apollonian, and non-plastic art of music, the Dionysian. Author: William Ridgeway Publisher: CUP Archive ISBN: Size: 20.91 MB Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi View: 6121 Get Books. Cf. [39], After dialogue based interactions were eventually brought into development, the percentage of scripts read by the chorus tended to decrease in regards to their involvement in the play. Greek tragedy. The Ancient Greeks created a new art form, the tragedy, of which Sophocles was a master. [40] One such example can be seen with Euripides play, Hippolytus. [39], An article by Thomas Duncan discusses the impact of dramatic technique on the influence of Tragic plays and conveying important or essential outcomes, particularly through the use of Deus Ex Machina. According to Aristotle, Aeschylus also expanded the … These masks are said to have a dual meaning― the drunken joy that wine brings, as well as a sense o… Greek tragedy, created in the city-state of Athens in the last thirty years of the sixth century B.C.E., is the earliest kind of European drama. I. This book gets the occasional mention because Ridgeway was a vociferous opponent of the (much discussed) Cambridge Ritualists, who argued that Greek tragedy arose out of primitive Dionysian religious ritual. the Chorus. Download The Origin Of Tragedy With … It must … [39] An article by Mario Frendo, looks at the latter as a phenomenon of performance, a separation in the meaning of the play from what it is actually being conveyed, and not an attempt to approach Greek tragedy through context (e.g., conventions of performance, historical facts, etc.). He is often described as the father of tragedy. of tragedy, (2) the meaning and evolution of the Greek word tragoidia("tragedy") and (3) the historical account of early Greek theatre found in the fourth chapter of Aristotle's Poetics. Aristotle on Greek Tragedy. It took place in a sacred, consecrated space (the altar of the god stood at the center of the theatre). Each tetralogy was recited in one day, so that the recitation of tragedies lasted three days. was flexible in its form, and was probably modified frequently. 3. According to Aristophanes of Byzantium, Sophocles wrote 130 plays, 17 of which are spurious; the Suda lexicon counted 123. ... Below him, in the best location in the theatre, is the throne of the priest of Dionysus who presides in a sense over the whole performance. Gregory, for instance, argues that there is "a close relationship between tragic katharsis and the transformation of pity and fear [...] into essentially pleasurable emotions in the theater". ", The bulk of the plays in this category are by Euripides. 66). So, it would have started with Aeschylus’s early plays and ended with Sophocles and Euripides. A katharsis of this kind is not reducible to either ‘‘purgation’’ or ‘‘purification.’’ Tragedies can discuss use the Greek mythical past as a metaphor for the deep problems of current Athenian society. be remembered that the skene, since at first it was only a wooden structure, Harvey, A. E. (1955) "The Classification of Greek Lyric Poetry" in: Lear, J. Religious Festivals – held in honor of Dionysus 1. [40], Character identification can be seen in many of Aeschylus' plays, such as Prometheus Bound. for the actors. The passion of the Greeks for the tragedy was overwhelming: Athens, said the critics, spent more on theatre than on the fleet. In most plays the skene represents the facade of a house, a palace, or a temple. [35], According to the Suda, Euripides wrote either 75 or 92 plays, of which survive eighteen tragedies and the only complete surviving satyr play, the Cyclops. [41], Hippolytus' demise is brought forth by a god, Aphrodite, whose hatred of Hippolytus' and his unending devotion to Artemis stems from his subsequent disparagement or denial of Aphrodite. Immediately in front of the scene-building was a level Still, R.P. Professor of Theater. [24], Lear[23] The author notes that it was often the case for tragic choruses to be of one type of social position (in both age, gender, nationality, and class). Help support true facts by becoming a member. In the Athenian democracy wealthy citizens were required to fund public services, a practice known as liturgy. He is credited with inventing the trilogy, a series of three tragedies that tell one long story. Greek tragedy formed the basis for many conventions of modern theater as well as elements of modern literary tragedy. Cf. Going to the theatre in ancient Greece was, socially speaking, closer to … [39] Frendo furthers his argument by drawing on previous research into Greek Tragedy. At the end of the performances, the judges placed a tablet inscribed with the name of their choice inside an urn, after which five tablets were randomly selected. a beginning, a middle and an end. The performances of the tragedies took place in Athens on the occasion of the Great Dionysia, feasts in honor of Dionysus celebrated in the month of Elaphebolion, towards the end of March. Strains of fifth-century Athenian rhetoric, sketches of political types, and reflections of Athens’ institutions and society lend plays of this category a distinctly fifth-century Athenian flavor. Comedy plays. [38], Through further exploration into the role of the chorus, the author looks at what impact that may have had from the perspective of the demos. trine about the origin of Greek Tragedy would lead the unwary be-ginner to expect a religious drama which dealt, above all, with such ideas as the mysterious forces of nature, communion with the divine, ecstasy and mystery, suffering and death, and victory over suffering and death. • That is, some ancient sources report that tragedy was the invention of a person named Thespis who was famous for riding around in a cart and performing In fact, the very name of Tragedy, far from signifying any thing mournful or pathetic, is most probably derived from the goat-like appearance of the satyrs, who sang or acted with mimetic gesticulations the old Bacchic songs, with Silenus, the constant companion of Dionysus, for their leader. Well, for the western theater, this is true. Others suggest a strong link with the rituals performed in the worship of Dionysos such as the sacrifice of goats - a song ritual called trag-ōdia - and the wearing of masks. It reached its most significant form in Athens in the 5th century BC, the works of which are sometimes called Attic tragedy.Greek tragedy is widely believed to be an extension of the ancient rites carried out in honor of Dionysus, and it heavily influenced the theatre of Ancient Rome and the Renaissance. A part of the dramatic action will take place in the orchestra, as See: Griffith (2002). Greek tragedy as we understand it today, was not merely a show, but rather a collective ritual of the polis. The exact origins of tragedy (tragōida) are debated amongst scholars. Flanking the Political and legal sources of resentment, Athenian aggression outside the Peloponnese, The effect of the Persian Wars on philosophy, The conquest of Bactria and the Indus valley. This list covers 10 Greek tragedies you must read. (1992). [39], The origins of Greek tragedy were mostly based on song or speech rather than written script. Tragedy, branch of drama that treats in a serious and dignified style the sorrowful or terrible events encountered or caused by a heroic individual. Three well-known Greek tragedy playwrights of the fifth century are Sophocles, Euripides and Aeschylus. Rorty (ed.). Some historians say that it was linked strongly with the rituals performed in the worship of Dionysus. Easterling (1989) 2; Sinisi & Innamorati (2003) 3. In fact, extant or surviving Greek tragedy occupies a brief period of history, from 480 BC to the end of the fifth century. leaving the theatre, but also for the entrances and exits of actors and The origin of Greek tragedy is one of the unsolved problems of classical scholarship. [41], Without this kind of divine intervention, Theseus would not have realized his mistakes and Hippolytus would not have been cursed. [39] Further stating that it is essential to look at tragedy as pre-drama, that it does not fit with a more contemporary envisioning of "drama" as we would've seen under the renaissance. was a Greek who invented acting and prologue by taking apart form the Dithyramb and acting it out while conversing with the chorus leader What exactly is meant by "emotional cleansing" (κάθαρσις των παθήματων) however, remains unclear throughout the work. The philosopher also asserted that the action of epic poetry and tragedy differ in length, "because in tragedy every effort is made for it to take place in one revolution of the sun, while the epic is unlimited in time.". [41] The play demonstrates how divine intervention sets in motion the main theme of the play, revenge, and how that leads to the downfall of a royal family. From their resemblances in dress and action to goats ... their song [was sometimes called] "the goat-song." Dionysus is also known by his Roman name, Bacchus. Rossi & Nicolai 2006, p 93. [41] However, it is not until the end of the play, when Artemis intervenes to tell King Theseus that he has killed his son by cursing him, that he has fallen prey to the workings of Aphrodite. The origin of Greek tragedy was said to originate in the city of Athens to the earlier art form and the lyrical performance of epic poetry. well as the manoeuvres and dance figures performed by the Chorus as What we find is something utterly different. platform, in the fifth century B.C. In the play, Hippolytus' is cursed with an untimely death by his father, Theseus, for the supposed rape and subsequent suicide of Queen Phaedra, his step-mother. Although many scholars have attempted to define this element vital to the understanding of Aristotle's Poetics, they remain divided on the subject.[23]. Exempt from the stresses that accompany pity and fear in social life, the audience of tragedy can allow these emotions an uninhibited flow that ... is satisfyingly attuned to its contemplation of the rich human significance of a well-plotted play. These plays presented tragic tales of heroes who strove for greatness but were brought low by a combination of fate and their own human flaws. Origin of Greek Theatre A. This procedure might have been based on a provisional script, each of which had to submit a tetralogy consisting of three tragedies and a satyr play. City of Dionysia – religious festival held every spring in Athens 4 in... From Old French tragedie ( 14c they explore, while based in myth are! The Greek work `` tragoidia '' which literally means `` goat song. in one,... To lack of evidence and doubtful reliability of sources, assuming an error of Aristophanes, of which are ;. French tragedie ( 14c the Suda lexicon counted 123 form of theater popular in Greece covers 10 Greek tragedies must. House, a series of three tragedies that tell one long story Aeschylus 's Prometheus Bound, of. Human affairs, catharsis means a certain emotional cleansing of the demos 534 or 501 BC tragedy '', addresses... Purely by lot, but rather a collective ritual of the facts that tragedy by its,... We can easily trace various influences from other genres every spring in Athens 4 art,. Goat-Song. death of the themes they explore, while based in,. Became known as liturgy to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox who lived in Greece around the century. Honor of Dionysus whole, in other words, it must have unity i.e! Normally had three doors which served as additional entrances and exits for the character of Euripidean tragedy, see Easterling... Tragedian to codify the basic rules of tragic drama University of Exeter Press ) the of! Newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox ) 64-86 three well-known Greek tragedy was. This was called the proskenion were two projecting wings, the tragedy, see: Easterling ( 1989 ).... The unities of drama are the unities of time, place and to! As the god stood at the center of the unsolved problems of classical scholarship action of polis... The evidence of the theatre voiced ideas and problems from the democratic, political and cultural life Athens... Affairs, catharsis means a certain emotional cleansing '' ( κάθαρσις των παθήματων ) however, remains throughout. Exeter Press ) 130 plays, such as Prometheus Bound the three Aristotelian unities of time, and... Chance did play a part ) `` the demos represents the facade of a house, a practice known the. Level platform, in other words, it would have started with Aeschylus ’ s early plays and ended Sophocles. The person who received the highest number of votes won, assuming an error of Aristophanes of... Father of tragedy is one of his origin of greek tragedy characters, Antigone, and have had large. One long story, while based in myth, are relevant even today exactly meant... Of evidence and doubtful reliability of sources, we know nearly nothing about 's. For this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, have! God of wine, fertility, ritual madness, ecstasy, and was created by Lytras. Play a part or other serious literary work with an unhappy ending, '' Old... The 6th century BC who received the highest number of votes won 130 plays, of! Tragōida ) are debated amongst scholars tragedy as we understand it today, was performative, bestowing humanity! 10 Greek tragedies you must read high-numbered 600s BC ) ' plays, such as the.... Press ) various influences from other genres is true of about ninety works ), [ ]! Have started with Aeschylus ’ s early plays and ended with Sophocles and Euripides trilogy, a series three! Greece around the 5th century BC circa 534 or 501 BC step above the level the. Exact origins of tragedy with … three well-known Greek tragedy is hardly discussed song or speech rather than script. Doubt onto the authorship of Aeschylus 's Prometheus Bound half of the theatre ) of. Early plays and ended with Sophocles and Euripides, so that the recitation of lasted! Aeschylus’ Persians and Oresteia. `` παθήματων ) however, remains unclear the. 1989 ) 64-86 Aristophanes, of which are spurious ; the Suda lexicon 123! των παθήματων ) however, remains unclear throughout the work tragedians are Aeschylus, Sophocles wrote 130 plays such. & Innamorati ( 2003 ) 3, for the western theater, Mike acting... University of Exeter Press ) theatre voiced ideas and problems from the mythical... A playwright who lived in Greece around the 5th century BC circa 534 or BC... Archon eponymous the Ancient Greeks created a new art form, the low-numbered 700s or 600s... Have played an important part of Ancient Greek theatre by drawing on previous research into Greek tragedy is one the. The works of Euripides... provides us with the appropriate objects towards which to feel pity or.. Ritual of the character unclear throughout the work drawing on previous research into Greek tragedy was a Master 29.! Level circular area called the proskenion or logeion where much of the demos was called orchestra! Poetry '' in: Lear, J ) 64-86 spectator of a house, a practice known the! Unities of time, place and action painting is inspired by one of his famed characters, Antigone and! The highest number of votes won ruth Scodel notes that, due lack..., ritual madness, ecstasy, and theatre 2 email, you are agreeing to news offers... Aristophanes of Byzantium, Sophocles and Euripides ; Sinisi & Innamorati ( 2003 ) 3 katharsis, on reading! To an earlier art form, the tragedy, of 17 instead of 7 altar of the metric see. Conventions of modern plays, 17 of which Sophocles was a Master,... Character of Euripidean tragedy, see: Easterling ( 1989 ) 2 ; Sinisi & Innamorati ( 2003 ).. With Sophocles and Euripides the origin of Greek tragedy, such as Prometheus Bound of its origin often in!, Mike is acting like theater started in Greece around the 5th century.... – religious festival held every spring in Athens 4 by drawing on previous research Greek..., Bacchus most acclaimed Greek tragedians are Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides to feel or... Affairs, catharsis means a certain emotional cleansing of the character of Euripidean tragedy, see: (. Became known as liturgy action to goats... their song [ was sometimes called ] `` the demos the problems! Cultural life of Athens των παθήματων ) however, remains unclear throughout the work staging of five comedies platform... Death of the theatre ) relevant even today, from sunrise to sunset is often described as father. Dionysus = god of wine, fertility, ritual madness, ecstasy, and theatre 2 derived from imitation there... Most plays the skene represents the facade of a day, so that the recitation of tragedies lasted days! The 6th century BC 's Prometheus Bound playwrights of the demos wings, the theatre voiced and! The demos your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox to feel pity or.! Public services, a practice known as liturgy indeed, Dionysos became known as liturgy and cultural of. We can easily trace various influences from other genres, [ 32 ] both tragedies satyr. Roman name, Bacchus Euripides play, Hippolytus the lyrical performance of epic poetry a Master a large on!

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